semi-political party (Matt 22:16 ; Mark 3:6; 12:13
) who joined with the Pharisees to oppose Jesus. It appears that they
were really neither a religious sect nor a proper political party,
but Jews who supported the dynasty of Herod and therefore the rule
natives or residents of the southernmost of the three provinces of
of Levi, of the tribe of Levi. Mentioned only twice in the Gospels
– Lk 10:32 & Jn 1:19 – and were probably helpers in the Temple.
= "the separated ones, separatists," a religious
party who first appeared about 135 B.C. They were also known
as chasidim, meaning "loved of God" or "loyal
to God." According to Josephus, their number at the height of
their popularity was more than 6,000. They were exponents and guardians
of the oral and written law, and in belief were traditionalists or
conservatives. Their orthodoxy was spiritually barren and there were
therefore opposed by Jesus (Mt 12:1,2 23:1-33, Lk 6:6,7; 9:37-54;
spiritual servers in the Temple, descended from Aaron, of the tribe
of Levi. In Jesus' time they also had civil powers. The head of the
order was the High Priest or Chief Priest, who in Jesus' day was a
very powerful spiritual and political figure. Being part of the religious
establishment, the priests plotted to destroy Jesus ( Mt 26:3-5,14-15,47,51;
Mk 14:10-11,43-47,53-66; 15:1; Lk 22:1-6,50,54,66-71; 23:1-2; Jn 11:47;
19:15-16,18) and were involved in trying and condemning Jesus (Mt
26:57-68; 27:1-2; Mk 14:53-65; Lk 22:54-71; 23:13-24; Jn 18:15-32).
Roman official, generally of praetorian or consular rank, who served
as deputy consul in the Roman provinces. The term of office was one
year, though it could be longer in special instances, but the powers
of the proconsul were unlimited in both the military and civil areas.
Both Sergius Paulus, Paul's famous convert (Acts 13:7), and Gallio
(18:12) were such officials.
= "governor". Pilate, Felix, and Festus were such governors
in Palestine with headquarters in Caesarea. Generally the procurators
were appointed directly by the emperor to govern the Roman provinces
officials are indicated by this word. In Jn 2:8,9 it means the governor
of a feast. In Jn 3:1 and 7:26 it refers to members of the ruling
council, the Sanhedrin.
religious and political party which exercised comparatively
little influence among the people. The root of the word means "to
be righteous." The Sadducees were largely of the Jewish aristocratic
priesthood. Under the Romans they become the party favourable to the
government. Since they were satisfied with the present, they did not
look forward to a future messianic age. The Sadducees had a number
of distinctive beliefs, contrasting strongly with those of the Pharisees:
They held only to the written law and rejected the traditions of the
Pharisees. In other words, the Sadducees believed that the Word of
God alone was the seat of religious authority. The Pharisees, on the
contrary, believed that just as binding as the Law itself, was the
supposed oral tradition of the teachings of Moses and the rulings
on the law made by the scribes over the years.
They denied of the resurrection of the body, personal immortality,
and retribution in a future life (Matt 22:23; Mark 12:18; Luke 20:27;
Acts 23:8; cf. Acts 4:1-2).
They denied the existence of angels and spirits (Acts 23:8).
They differed from both the Pharisees and the Essenes on the matter
of divine predestination and the freedom of the human will. They threw
aside all ideas of divine interposition in the government of the world.
Sadducees are mentioned by name in the NT only about a dozen times
(Matt 3:7; 16:1, 6, 11-12; 22:23, 34; Mark 12:18; Luke 20:27; Acts
4:1; 5:17; 23:6-8); but it must be remembered that when mention is
made of the chief priests, practically the same persons are referred
residents of the central province of Palestine who historically were
mixed race, only part Jewish, and who were therefore despised by the
ruling council of the Jews of 70 or 72 members, comprising Chief Priests
or heads of 24 priestly courses, scribes (lawyers), and the elders.
(Included Pharisees and Sadducees). Jesus was taken before this council
they were writers and transcribes of the law. By Jesus' time they
were also teachers of the Law, or lawyers (Mt 7:29; 13:52; 17:10;
23:2-3). They tested Jesus with questions, bringing to Jesus a woman
taken in adultery (Jn 8:3). Some of them were members of the council
(Mt 2:4), and they conspired against Jesus (Mt 26:3,57; 27:41; Mk
14:1; Lk 22:66). They were reproved by Jesus for their hypocrisy (Mt
15:20; 9:3; 12:38; 15:1; 16:21; 20:18; 21:15)
Ruler of a fourth part of a region (Mt 14:1; Lk 3:1; 9:7; Acts 13:1)
of Jewish patriotic political party started to resist
Roman rule over Israel. with violence and assassination, eventually
provoking the Roman war. Simon the Zealot was distinguished from Simon
Peter by this epithet (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13).