"God's Love in the Old Testament" - Chapter 21



Chapter 21: "God, Israel, and the Canaanites"




Chapter 21– God, Israel and the Canaanites


I will send an angel before you and drive out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites,

Hivites and Jebusites (Ex 33:2)



Contents of Chapter 21

21.1 Recap: God as a Bringer of Justice
21.2 The Divine Strategy revealed: the Plan for Canaan
21.3 The Thinking behind the Strategy clarified: Canaan's State
21.4 An Aside: Taking Remedial Action
21.5 An Aside – Being Responsible
21.6 More on God's Responsibility
21.7 A Final Example: An alternative seen in the life of Rahab

21.8 Some Conclusions



NB. This chapter should be read in conjunction with chapter 23 and sections 23.8 and 23.9 that deal more fully with the spiritual dimensions of what took place in the invasion.



21.1 Recap: God as Bringer of Justice


Let's just recap how we concluded the previous chapter:


There is no doubt about it, and the Bible is quite clear about it, God DOES sometimes bring death. Now in the light of all that we have seen we need to ponder that carefully.


Remember, so far we have considered the Bible's claim that:

  • God is loving and kind,
  • God is good,
  • God seeks justice,
  • God seeks to draw people back into a right way of living


So how does it fit that God apparently instructed Israel to wipe out the inhabitants of Canaan? To think this through carefully we need to take time and effort, so we will slowly work through what the Bible tells us to get a full and correct picture, which is different from that which is popularly believed about this activity of Israel.


Remember, we are addressing the question that is often raised by sceptic and believer alike, about how a loving God could order the apparent destruction of a whole people in the land of Canaan .


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21.2 The Divine Strategy revealed

We will see that God's plan is revealed at least 400 years earlier and it involves dealing with the sin of Canaan and through that, giving Israel the land. We need to see from the outset that it is a long-term plan to stop excessive sin - but it may not be what you have popularly believed!
God's plan for Canaan was long-term


Let's work our way through what the Bible tells us happened.


Gen 15:13-16   Then the LORD said to him, "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated four hundred years. But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves, and afterward they will come out with great possessions. You, however, will go to your fathers in peace and be buried at a good old age. In the fourth generation your descendants will come back here, for the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its full measure."

  • This is the Lord speaking to Abram in the land of Canaan many years before.
  • He lays out the divine strategy which we see being fulfilled later in Genesis and then in Exodus.
  • It means that Abram's descendants, who are the future nation of Israel, will return to this land.
  • Yet there is an element of sin and future judgment mentioned; the Amorites, one of the tribes in the land, are obviously set on a godless course which will reach a peak of tolerance (by God) in about 400 years, when He will have to take action against them.
  • There are biblical instances of such an awful decline in human behaviour which, if it were to continue, would bring utter downfall to mankind. In such instances God steps in and removes the cancer to save the whole body. There is that sense behind this.


Ex 3:8   So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey--the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.

  • Here is God's intent first declared to Moses some 400 years later.
  • He isn't going to leave Israel as slaves in Egypt but He will deliver them from that and give them another land that is at present occupied by a number of other tribal groups.


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21.3 The Thinking behind the Strategy clarified


Ex 23:23   My angel will go ahead of you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites, and I will wipe them out. Do not bow down before their gods or worship them or follow their practices. You must demolish them and break their sacred stones to pieces.

  • God's intent is here reiterated more forcefully with a hint of the reasoning behind it.

The following quote from Compton's Bible CD is worth noting:

Just how sinful many Canaanite religious practices were is now known from archaeological artifacts and from their own epic literature, discovered at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) on the north Syrian coast beginning in 1929. Their "worship" was polytheistic and included child sacrifice, idolatry, religious prostitution and divination”
The spiritual & moral state of Canaan was terrible


  • Polytheistic means they had many ‘gods',
  • child sacrifice is something none of us would condone,
  • idolatry is bowing down to manmade idols,
  • religious prostitution was using sex for religious purposes,
  • divination was an occult practice to determine the future.


All of these were at the best, foolish, superstition and definitely harmful, and at the worst horrendous! A more realistic assessment of the inhabitants of the land of Canaan at that time would be to suggest that to use God's earlier words, the sin of the Amorites has NOW reached its full measure, was an understatement!

What was now happening in this land was comparable to the evil we've noted prior the the Flood, an evil that could no longer be tolerated. If we were time travellers and dropped in on that land we would be revolted by what was happening and would almost certainly say, "Why doesn't God do something about this?"

Comparing the fearful superstitious, occultic lives of the inhabitants to a living relationship with almighty, all-wise and benign God, who we have seen in the first chapter described as,

compassionate and gracious slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin.”

                     it makes the religion practised in this land before Israel arrived, not only primitive and horrible, causing fear and extreme anguish, but also a thing far from the Maker's design for mankind, and pure folly in comparison to the possibility of a living relationship with the God described above.

In this early description of what was to happen, God simply says that He is going to wipe them out as nations occupying this land and the reasons are given, just as we've seen above. We will see in what follows that the destruction of the people was the second possibility on God's heart, but a reality in the face of the intransigence of the people of that land - as we will later see.

But note in passing that when a nation falls into this 'subhuman' standard (compared to the standard of the design for mankind by God) it does include men, women and children - whole communities are involved (as see in our own western nations today).

What is going on in this land is a blot on the world landscape which, if it is left, will spread and cause further harm. It will also certainly stop Israel becoming the people God plans for them to be. Observation of history shows that sin is contagious and goes from bad to worse. Without the intervention of God it never improves!
Without God's intervention, sin only gets worse


Remember what we said in the previous chapter about God who takes disciplinary action to bring people to their senses and back to the place where they can be open to receive all His goodness so they live according to His design.


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21.4 An Aside: Taking Remedial Action


There are many instances in life where we have to take remedial action to prevent worse:


In Gardening – a minor example

When dandelions appear on my lawn, I know that if I don't dig them out quickly they will grow, flower and turn to seed and cause dozens more dandelion plants to spread across my lawn.

In Homes – dry rot

If there is a combination of dampness and spores, they can cause a fungus that breaks down the wood and end up destroying the property. It needs totally cutting out and the surrounding brickwork and plaster burnt or sprayed to kill off any remaining spores.

In the Classroom

If there is a disruptive child, the teacher knows that his or her disruptive behaviour must be stopped before it destroys the teaching environment. If all remedial action failures, the head teacher may remove the child from the class and even from the school.

On a Housing estate

One disruptive family can completely upset the lives of families on the rest of the estate and cause vandalism, bullying and a whole host of other antisocial behaviour. Eventually the only course of action to save the estate may be the complete removal of this dysfunctional family.

In a hospital

Cancer is an obvious attack on the body which must be destroyed if the body is to be saved.

Crime in Society

At a very obvious level, where there is criminal activity in a local community, the majority of the residents want the police to catch the thieves, vandals or whoever and remove them from the community.


We have no problem with this concept. It is a very common one. In the things above we have gone from the mundane to the critical. For the greater good and wellbeing of others, action has to be taken to remedy a threatening evil.
We expect activity to remedy evil

This is partly what justice is all about, and it is also about creating and maintaining civilised societies.


In fact, if our police do not do this in our local community we will start complaining to higher authorities, because we expect this sort of action to take place.

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21.5 An Aside – Being Responsible


Now let's change the focus of the analogies. Suppose you are responsible in a situation involving other people. Let's consider some examples:


You are a football coach

You are responsible for a local team of young boys. One boy comes along and joins the team but you soon realise he is a disruptive influence. He makes rude comments about you behind your back, he encourages fouling, he demeans other young players and generally he pulls down the morale of the team. You need to take action. You may speak to him and to the team, but if he refuses to listen to you, you will soon giving him marching orders, for the sake of the team.

You are an artist

You have painted a lot of (good) paintings and you hold an exhibition. During the time of the exhibition you encounter a mother and her son. The son is drawing on some of your works of art with a pencil and she is doing nothing about it. You challenge her – and him – and she accuses you of lacking understanding. No she will not stop him. Although you may wish him to learn about art, because of the intransigence of them both, you eject them both! Moreover, we the watching public applaud you!

You are a member of the Government

You hear that there is a group of extremists who are preaching racial hatred. They are trying to stir up dissension against minority groups and cause social breakdown. We, the rest of the public, are feeling nervous. We can foresee where this is going and so we demand you take action to outlaw and prevent this continuing.

You are a parent

It comes to your attention that your child is mixing with a small group of children at school who are taking drugs, swearing, encouraging bullying, and anarchistic behaviour, and have a general disregard for authority. You have various options: remove your child from the school or approach the head teacher with a request that they deal with this rowdy and disruptive element. The last thing you want to do is nothing, because you can see where this is leading and you want to protect your child.

You are a soldier

A minority group of terrorists seek to take over another country. The threat is that if they do take it over they will use it as a base to train terrorists to attack the West. The United Nations get the country to agree to receive help and you and your men are sent to counter the terrorist threat. These local fighters (we call them terrorists) will not retreat and in fact will do everything in their power to remove our forces from that country in their efforts to take over, subdue and transform the country to their ways of thinking. A well-meaning pacifist says we shouldn't kill them. You explain that under such circumstances they do not bargain, only kill, and to act defensively means it is impossible for you to do your job without killing them. The public accepts the position.


In these situations there are a number of commonalities:

  • There is something good to start with – a football team, works of art, a diverse community, a good child, a peaceful country.
  • There is a threat to that good thing.
  • There is a requirement of action to be taken to protect that good thing.
  • That action may require the complete removal of that threat – people!
In each of these situations we accept that it is perfectly reasonable to completely remove the threat if all else fails.
Reasonability means  action


Now there is something very obvious here: to accept what we've just suggested, we have to understand:

  • the ‘good thing' there to start with, and
  • the genuineness of the threat and
  • the consequences of failing to deal radically with it.


Now if we can see that in the simple illustrations above, why is it that we fail to see it in respect of God, Israel and Canaan? So, taking the above we have:

  • the ‘good thing' there to start with (God's world and the goodness in it)
  • the genuineness of the threat (the rampant sin within Canaan)
  • the consequences of failing to deal radically (strong action to remove it before it spreads further)


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21.6 More on Responsibility

As we come back to the history, we need also to face a crucial fact that almost all critics fail to observe.  Most people never take note that God's initial intention is that the inhabitants of Canaan will flee the land and leave their pagan superstitions
God's design was for Canaan to flee


Ex 23:27-30   "I will send my terror ahead of you and throw into confusion every nation you encounter. I will make all your enemies turn their backs and run. I will send the hornet ahead of you to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites out of your way. But I will not drive them out in a single year, because the land would become desolate and the wild animals too numerous for you. Little by little I will drive them out before you, until you have increased enough to take possession of the land.

  • God's method of dealing with the threat is thus explained.
  • Note that first of all it is to make these peoples run!
  • It will be a gradual thing but, nevertheless, the objective is to make them leave!
  • It will be achieved by God simply speaking into the hearts and minds of the occupants of the land to make them fearful so they go.
  • If they heed this, that is the end of the story.
  • If they dig in and harden their hearts, that will be a different story!


Ex 33:2 "I will send an angel before you and drive out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites."

  • God's method involves getting them out of the land.
  • This is reiterated. It is quite clear, this is God's intent.
  • Few critics realise this.
  • It is a similar argument to that about hell. People say how can God consign people to hell? He doesn't; they choose it. It is an act of their will! There is no need to go.


An aside: The illustration of Anorexia

Anorexia Nervosa is simply described as a disorder which is characterized by loss of appetite. I offer a healthy person a beautiful meal. It has variety and is beautifully prepared. They receive it and eat gladly. But now I invite along a person who (I didn't know) has Anorexia. They see the food and shudder and flee. Does the world blame me for providing beautiful food? No! The world recognises that this person has a serious eating disorder – they are ill! A healthy person receives the good offered them; the other person violently rejects it.


In terms of spiritual realities, this is just the same. God offers us the wonder of being restored to an amazing relationship with Him, entering into the fullness of the design of who I am created to be, with self-worth and self-fulfilment. If I reject the wonder of that, it is because I am ill – contaminated by sin, that sickness we have all inherited, that makes people reject God and be utterly self-centred.


If I was a Canaanite, the symptoms of this sickness called sin, manifests itself in an acceptance of superstitious, idolatrous, fear-filled, occultic religion that even requires me to sacrifice my children to appease the ‘gods'. Even more it manifests itself in a hardheartedness that is seen in most as a refusal to take notice of the ‘fear warnings' that God is sending me, designed to make me leave the land and then watch the life of Israel and wonder (as the Queen of Sheba eventually did). I could stop and pause and think and wonder about the people called Israel and the God who seems to be with them - but mostly I don't.


Having observed God's initial intent, which is to drive the Canaanites out of the land, there is one aspect that we need to bring out. Observe –


Josh 2:9   (Rahab) said to them, "I know that the LORD has given this land to you and that a great fear of you has fallen on us, so that all who live in this country are melting in fear because of you.

  • Note, because it IS important, that the Canaanites knew what God had been doing through Israel, the word HAD spread so they DID know what to expect!


Let's continue to observe the ongoing accounts in the run-up to the invasion:


Ex 34:11-13   I will drive out before you the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. Be careful not to make a treaty with those who live in the land where you are going, or they will be a snare among you. Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones and cut down their Asherah poles.

  • Intent and method are reiterated with purpose implied within the warning.
  • There it is again, God's clear intent - to drive out (not kill!) the inhabitants.
  • It comes with the start of a warning about why this is happening – and it is to do with the religious practices of the Canaanites that we noted earlier mention in Exodus 23.


Num 14:42 Do not go up, because the LORD is not with you. You will be defeated by your enemies, for the Amalekites and Canaanites will face you there. Because you have turned away from the LORD, he will not be with you and you will fall by the sword

  • Now Israel refused to go into the land and so God warned against them changing their mind.
  • If they did, the Canaanites would defeat them. This happened.
  • Thus another forty years passed before Israel attempted to take the land, another forty years for the Canaanite worship to get worse and become even more ingrained in their hard hearts.


Deut 7:1-6   When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are entering to possess and drives out before you many nations--the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites, seven nations larger and stronger than you-- and when the LORD your God has delivered them over to you and you have defeated them, then you must destroy them totally. Make no treaty with them, and show them no mercy. Do not intermarry with them. Do not give your daughters to their sons or take their daughters for your sons, or they will turn your sons away from following me to serve other gods , and the LORD's anger will burn against you and will quickly destroy you. This is what you are to do to them: Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones, cut down their Asherah poles and burn their idols in the fire. For you are a people holy to the LORD your God. The LORD your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his people, his treasured possession.”

  • Note carefully, collectively the occupants were much bigger and stronger than Israel.
  • Still God's intent is to drive them out.
  • Those who remain will be defeated and destroyed because they clearly will be determined to hang on to the land and to their practices and will seek to subvert Israel.
  • They clearly had a pagan worship focused on Baal which they wanted to hold on to.
  • Israel were to be a special people who were to be a light to the rest of the world (as we saw in a previous chapter) and so it was vital that they not be subverted to pagan religions. (This is critical to God's plan for the world!)
  • God knows the human heart and so knows that despite all He has done for Israel if they, for a moment, tolerate or allow this pagan worship to continue, some of their own people will be subverted by it and it will start to act like a cancer that will spread throughout the nation so no longer will they be the people that can reveal God to the rest of the world (as we saw in an earlier chapter).
  • These instructions are now given in Deuteronomy which was written by Moses shortly before he died and before Israel were to go into the land.
  • The warnings are specifically strong because failure to heed them will mean the potential end of ‘the Israel project'!


Deut 20:17,18   Completely destroy them--the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites--as the LORD your God has commanded you. Otherwise, they will teach you to follow all the detestable things they do in worshiping their gods, and you will sin against the LORD your God.

  •  Again the reason for the destruction of the inhabitants who have refused to leave the land is given – they will subvert Israel!
  • If the cancer (the Canaanites) remains, you either destroy it or it destroys you.


Josh 3:10 This is how you will know that the living God is among you and that he will certainly drive out before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites and Jebusites.

  • The original intention that the inhabitants are to be driven out is reiterated now by Joshua as they go into the Land.
  • The destruction of the remaining inhabitants is secondary – it is necessary if they refuse to leave, and if they refuse to leave that will simply be a further sign of the hardness of their hearts and their determination to prevail over Israel.
  • The future of Israel is at risk, and the salvation of the world that God has planned to bring through them.


Josh 9:1,2 Now when all the kings west of the Jordan heard about these things--those in the hill country, in the western foothills, and along the entire coast of the Great Sea as far as Lebanon (the kings of the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites)-- they came together to make war against Joshua and Israel.

  • The ‘these things' were simply Israel entering the land and declaring the word of God.
  • The inhabitants were taking no chances and so they now initiate the fighting.
  • Israel 's actions became a defensive thing. There was no room to make treaties.
  • Well not exactly true, for immediately following these two verses we have the account of the Gibeonites who came and brought about a treaty with Israel for them to work within the nation and live!

I commented at the beginning of a previous chapter that one of the biggest responses to my apologetics blog is about why God allowed or even commanded Israel to kill the inhabitants of Canaan, men, women and children. My usual answer to this is that, in fact:

The occupants of Canaan had three options:

•  To join Israel – as the Gibeonites did (see Joshua 9)

•  To flee the land – as some of them no doubt did

•  To stay and fight Israel – where the outcome was not guaranteed – some lived and remained.


In this chapter, we have seen just how this is true. We have sought to emphasise that:

  • leaving the Land was God's first objective for the Canaanites,
  • failing them leaving or making treaties with Israel, fighting was the only outcome left to them – but it was their choice.


Clearly the thought of driving out the inhabitants (rather than destroying them) was there in the memory of Israel for years later we find king David praying and saying,

"And who is like your people Israel--the one nation on earth that God went out to redeem as a people for himself, and to make a name for himself, and to perform great and awesome wonders by driving out nations and their gods from before your people, whom you redeemed from Egypt?"

We cannot emphasise enough, God's intent was not to destroy the inhabitants but to drive them out of the land. Their stubbornness, no doubt enhanced by their occult activity, was the only thing that meant deaths occurred in battled.

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21.7 Final Examples


The nature of Israel's approach to Canaan and the Lord putting fear in the hearts of the inhabitants, meant that God was doing all He could to give the inhabitants an opportunity to turn towards Him and become part of His plan to bring blessing to the earth.


No more clearly is this seen than in the incident involving Rahab, an occupant of the land living in the city of Jericho :


Josh 2:1,2 Then Joshua son of Nun secretly sent two spies from Shittim. "Go, look over the land," he said, "especially Jericho." So they went and entered the house of a prostitute (or possibly an innkeeper) named Rahab and stayed there.”

  •  She harbours these spies and sees them out safely and eventually, when Jericho is taken, she becomes part of Israel and eventually marries Salmon, an Israelite, and becomes part of the Messianic family line (see Mt 1:4,5).


Right at the beginning of the book of Joshua we see that it was perfectly possible to join with Israel as they entered the Promised Land. By doing that, Rahab joined the divine plan and lived, not only then but into history – she is praised in the New Testament! She didn't resist the plan of God but entered into being part of the restored people of God.

Israel's taking the Promised Land from the Canaanites had the twofold purpose of:

  • being an act of justice destroying the terrible things happening in Canaan before Israel arrived, and
  • providing a new homeland for Israel.

If in the process some of the inhabitants wanted to become part of that chosen people, that acted as a means of absolving them from the act of judgment that was coming on the land in the implementation of justice. Rahab and the Gibeonites are clear examples of that.

Before we come to the end of this chapter, where we have seen what happened IN Canaan and what happened when Joshua sent in spies, we perhaps ought to pick up on something else that is very relevant to the foolish claim that God just likes killing people.

Deut 2:4-6, 8,9,19   “Give the people these orders: `You are about to pass through the territory of your brothers the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir.'” They will be afraid of you, but be very careful. Do not provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land, not even enough to put your foot on. I have given Esau the hill country of Seir as his own. You are to pay them in silver for the food you eat and the water you drink.' ..... “So we went on past our brothers the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir. We turned from the Arabah road, which comes up from Elath and Ezion Geber, and travelled along the desert road of Moab. Then the LORD said to me, "Do not harass the Moabites or provoke them to war, for I will not give you any part of their land. I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as a possession.” ..... When you come to the Ammonites, do not harass them or provoke them to war, for I will not give you possession of any land belonging to the Ammonites. I have given it as a possession to the descendants of Lot ."

So three times the Lord had instructed them to pass through lands without attacking the peoples there. Israel were NOT on a ‘kill anyone in sight” campaign! God was NOT bringing judgment on these three people groups and so Israel had passed through these countries without upset. Even more than that, they were to respect these peoples and pay for the food they took along the way. There are strict guidelines given to Israel to respect and honour these people. Killing other peoples is not just something to be done!

Indeed, we may go further, for along the way they would receive opposition:

Deut 2:26-29  “ From the desert of Kedemoth I sent messengers to Sihon king of Heshbon offering peace and saying, "Let us pass through your country. We will stay on the main road; we will not turn aside to the right or to the left. Sell us food to eat and water to drink for their price in silver. Only let us pass through on foot- as the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir, and the Moabites, who live in Ar, did for us--until we cross the Jordan into the land the LORD our God is giving us. But Sihon king of Heshbon refused to let us pass through. For the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate in order to give him into your hands, as he has now done.”

Moses had made a very reasonable approach to king Sihon – they would restrict themselves to the main road, and they would pay for food and drink and pass through without causing any trouble, just like they had done with the previous nations. But that was of no avail: Now we don't know the history of Sihon and the Lord, but when we compare this with the story of Pharaoh in Exodus 1-12, it was actually that the king already had a hard heart and the Lord simply hardened it further by confronting him. So Sihon refuses to let Moses through and even more, “Sihon and all his army came out to meet us in battle at Jahaz.” (v.32) The result was as the Lord had declared: “the LORD our God delivered him over to us and we struck him down, together with his sons and his whole army.” (v.33) - yet this was a purely defensive action but it shows the strong hostility that often rose against them and it was a case of fight or be destroyed.


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21.8 Some Conclusions


So let's make some final points here:


a) God is Creator and knows best how the world works. 


b) Although, because of the Fall, mankind has rebelled against Him, God still works to bring people back to Himself and gives opportunity after opportunity to allow that to happen. His desire is for people to live according to His design – which included being in relationship with Him.


c) The Canaanites had given themselves over to occultic, barbaric and utterly superstitious idol worship.


d) Acting against that, God chose Canaan to relocate the slave nation, Israel, yet within His plans He gave the Canaanites the options of joining Israel (as Rahab and the Gibeonites did) or of leaving the land. If they refused those two options and stayed they risked being slaughtered by Israel.


e) The choice of outcome was down to the Canaanites. If they had been wise they would have left, already having heard what God did to Pharaoh and other hostile kings through Israel – but they weren't.


f) Justice demanded that this pagan nation, sacrificing infants, be stopped in their tracks as we might seek to stop abusers of children and others today, or as we might seek to stop an infection spreading causing eventual destruction.


g) There were two issues involved in that:


  i) their false occultic religion that led them to act as less than humans designed by God, and

  ii) their stubborn hearts that refused to respond to all they heard about Israel and the One true God.


h) Our acceptance of these things will, again, depend on key issues:


 i) whether we are open to accept the evidence of the documents of the Old Testament (the

    veracity of which is dealt with in earlier chapters of this book)


 ii) whether we are open to God or not.

  • If we are not open to God we will ignore what has been written in these pages and simply remain critical in the face of the evidence that removes criticism.
  • The evidence is there and when carefully examined, clearly shows a different picture to that so often portrayed.


Now please go to chapter 23 and sections 23.8 and 23.9 that deal more fully with the spiritual dimensions of what took place in the invasion for a fuller explanation of the resistance to Israel and the necessity of the invasion.



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