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Series Theme: FRAMEWORKS: Numbers

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PART 5: Travelling North

Part five sees them travelling north up the east side of the Dead Sea and three battles.

Ch.20: [Action] Water from the Rock & encounter with Edom

•  Miriam's death, Moses' failure & Aaron's death

Ch.21: [Action] Battles physical & spiritual & travel

•  battle with Arad, snakes and defeating Sihon & Og


FRAMEWORKS: Numbers 21: Battles physical & spiritual & travel


v.1-3 Arad Destroyed
v.4-9 The Bronze Snake
v.10-20 The Journey to Moab
v.21-32 Rebuffed by, and Defeat of Sihon
v.33-35 Defeating Og



v.1-3 Arad Destroyed


v.1 When the Canaanite king of Arad, who lived in the Negev, heard that Israel was coming along the road to Atharim, he attacked the Israelites and captured some of them.

v.2 Then Israel made this vow to the Lord : “If you will deliver these people into our hands, we will totally destroy their cities.”

v.3 The Lord listened to Israel's plea and gave the Canaanites over to them. They completely destroyed them and their towns; so the place was named Hormah. [ Hormah means destruction .]


[Notes: Arad was a city north of Mount Hor and when the ‘king' [local ruler] of Arad heard Israel were coming in his direction they set out and attacked Israel, picking off some of their people out on the fringe of the procession. Israel prayed and had success in wiping them out. This is Israel's first battle since beating off the Amalekites on their way to Sinai [Ex 17] but it was not a great obstacle for such a large body as Israel had become. It was at Hormah that they had been defeated by the Amalekites forty years earlier – see 14:45 – so in that sense this is quite significant psychologically.]



v.4-9 The Bronze Snake


v.4 They travelled from Mount Hor along the route to the Red Sea, to go around Edom. But the people grew impatient on the way;

v.5 they spoke against God and against Moses, and said, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? There is no bread! There is no water! And we detest this miserable food!”

v.6 Then the Lord sent venomous snakes among them; they bit the people and many Israelites died.

v.7 The people came to Moses and said, “We sinned when we spoke against the Lord and against you. Pray that the Lord will take the snakes away from us.” So Moses prayed for the people.

v.8 The Lord said to Moses, “Make a snake and put it up on a pole; anyone who is bitten can look at it and live.”

v.9 So Moses made a bronze snake and put it up on a pole. Then when anyone was bitten by a snake and looked at the bronze snake, they lived.


[Notes: Israel backtrack and go south and then east around Edom and yet again the people grumble against the Lord and against Moses. Snakes started appearing and many die from snake bites. The people repent and Moses prayed for them. The Lord tells Moses to have a bronze snake on a pole made and everyone who was bitten should go to it [it was probably set up at the Tabernacle] and they would be healed. Their going to the pole would be a sign of contrition and seeking the Lord and He then healed them. This snake would be referred to by Jesus, paralleling his being lifted up on the Cross. Faith is at the heart of this incident needed by those who had initially rebelled.]



v.10-20 The Journey to Moab


v.10 The Israelites moved on and camped at Oboth.

v.11 Then they set out from Oboth and camped in Iye Abarim, in the wilderness that faces Moab toward the sunrise.

v.12 From there they moved on and camped in the Zered Valley.

v.13 They set out from there and camped alongside the Arnon , which is in the wilderness extending into Amorite territory. The Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites.

v.14,15 That is why the Book of the Wars of the Lord says:. . . Zahab in Suphah and the ravines, the Arnon and the slopes of the ravines that lead to the settlement of Ar and lie along the border of Moab.”

v.16 From there they continued on to Beer, the well where the Lord said to Moses, “Gather the people together and I will give them water.”

v.17 Then Israel sang this song: “Spring up, O well! Sing about it,
v.18 about the well that the princes dug, that the nobles of the people sank— the nobles with scepters and staffs.” Then they went from the wilderness to Mattanah,

v.19 from Mattanah to Nahaliel, from Nahaliel to Bamoth,

v.20 and from Bamoth to the valley in Moab where the top of Pisgah overlooks the wasteland.


[Notes: They make their way slowly north up the east side of the Dead Sea.]



v.21-32 Rebuffed by, and Defeat of Sihon


v.21-23 Israel seek a peaceful passing but Sihon refuses

v.21 Israel sent messengers to say to Sihon king of the Amorites:

v.22 “Let us pass through your country. We will not turn aside into any field or vineyard, or drink water from any well. We will travel along the King's Highway until we have passed through your territory.”

v.23 But Sihon would not let Israel pass through his territory. He mustered his entire army and marched out into the wilderness against Israel. When he reached Jahaz, he fought with Israel.


v.24-32 Israel defending themselves, triumph over Sihon

v.24 Israel, however, put him to the sword and took over his land from the Arnon to the Jabbok, but only as far as the Ammonites, because their border was fortified.

v.25 Israel captured all the cities of the Amorites and occupied them, including Heshbon and all its surrounding settlements.

v.26   Heshbon was the city of Sihon king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab and had taken from him all his land as far as the Arnon.

v.27 That is why the poets say: “Come to Heshbon and let it be rebuilt; let Sihon's city be restored.

v.28 “Fire went out from Heshbon, a blaze from the city of Sihon. It consumed Ar of Moab, the citizens of Arnon's heights.
v.29 Woe to you, Moab! You are destroyed, people of Chemosh! He has given up his sons as fugitives and his daughters as captives to Sihon king of the Amorites.

v.30 “But we have overthrown them; Heshbon's dominion has been destroyed all the way to Dibon. We have demolished them as far as Nophah, which extends to Medeba.”

v.31 So Israel settled in the land of the Amorites.

v.32 After Moses had sent spies to Jazer, the Israelites captured its surrounding settlements and drove out the Amorites who were there.


[Notes: It is important to understand the geography here up the east side of the Dead Sea: to the south is  Edom , (the area referred to previously), north of them is  Moab  and north of them  Ammon, west of which dwelt the Amorites at the city of  Heshbon, and then further north still,  Bashan. Israel were triumphant wherever they went.]



v.33-35 Defeating Og


v.33 Then they turned and went up along the road toward Bashan, and Og king of Bashan and his whole army marched out to meet them in battle at Edrei.

v.34 The Lord said to Moses, “Do not be afraid of him, for I have delivered him into your hands, along with his whole army and his land. Do to him what you did to Sihon king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon.”

v.35 So they struck him down, together with his sons and his whole army, leaving them no survivors. And they took possession of his land.


[Notes: Further north Og, king of Bashan [see above] comes to fight them and is defeated.]