Exodus 28: Priests Clothes & Uses
The Priestly Garments
Materials Used and clothes made
The Priestly Garments
Aaron your brother brought to you from among the Israelites, along
with his sons Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, so they may
serve me as priests.
sacred garments for your brother Aaron to give him dignity and
all the skilled workers to whom I have given wisdom in such matters
that they are to make garments for Aaron, for his consecration,
so he may serve me as priest.
are the garments they are to make: a breast-piece, an
ephod, a robe, a woven tunic, a turban and a sash. They
are to make these sacred garments for your brother Aaron and his
sons, so they may serve me as priests.
them use gold, and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and fine linen.
Aaron and his four sons are to be designated priests.
[v.1] Aaron is to have special clothing to mark him out, as items
listed in v.4, all made out of precious materials.]
the ephod of gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet
yarn, and of finely twisted linen—the work of skilled hands.
is to have two shoulder pieces attached to two
of its corners, so it can be fastened.
skillfully woven waistband is to be like it—of
one piece with the ephod and made with gold, and with blue, purple
and scarlet yarn, and with finely twisted linen.
two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel
the order of their birth—six names on one stone and the remaining
six on the other.
the names of the sons of Israel on the two stones the way a gem
cutter engraves a seal. Then mount the stones in gold filigree
fasten them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones
for the sons of Israel. Aaron is to bear the names on his shoulders
as a memorial before the Lord
gold filigree settings
two braided chains of pure gold, like a rope, and attach the chains
to the settings.
The ephod, to be worn over the chest and possible down
below the waist, had shoulder straps and a waist belt for keeping
it in place. It appears to have been the background support for
the breast-piece [see below] possibly in the form of a long waistcoat.
Two stones set in gold, each engraved with the names of six of
the tribes of Israel, are to be fastened one either side on the
shoulder pieces. The priest thus carries the people of Israel
in and out of the Lord's presence. There are to be two braided
chains of gold attached to the settings that presumably go over
the head and sit on the shoulders and chest.]
A Pouch for decision making
a breast-piece for making decisions
—the work of skilled hands. Make it like the ephod: of
gold, and of blue, purple and scarlet yarn, and of finely twisted
is to be square— about
long and wide—and folded double.
The Stones of Israel
mount four rows of precious stones on it. The first row shall
be carnelian, chrysolite and beryl;
second row shall be turquoise, lapis lazuli and emerald;
third row shall be jacinth, agate and amethyst;
fourth row shall be topaz, onyx and jasper. Mount them in gold
are to be twelve stones, one for each of the names of the sons
of Israel, each engraved like a seal with the name of one of the
Fixings for the Pouch
the breast-piece make braided chains of pure gold, like a rope.
two gold rings for it and fasten them to two corners of the breast-piece.
the two gold chains to the rings at the corners of the breast-piece,
the other ends of the chains to the two settings, attaching them
to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front.
two gold rings and attach them to the other two corners of the
breast-piece on the inside edge next to the ephod.
two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the shoulder
pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the seam just above
the waistband of the ephod.
rings of the breast-piece are to be tied to the rings of the ephod
with blue cord, connecting it to the waistband, so that the breast-piece
will not swing out from the ephod.
Aaron & decision-making
Aaron enters the Holy Place, he will bear the names of the sons
of Israel over his heart on the breast-piece of decision as a
continuing memorial before the Lord.
put the Urim and the Thummim in the breast-piece, so they may
be over Aaron's heart whenever he enters the presence of the Lord
Thus Aaron will always bear the means of making decisions for
the Israelites over his heart before the Lord
The breast-piece is, in fact, a pouch made out of a
nine inches square material folded over with twelve engraved stones
on the front, one for each tribe, and is fixed, first by two gold
chains, one from each corner of the pouch to the corresponding
shoulder piece, and then by two blue cords from the bottom corners
of the pouch to the waistband. Two, presumably, differently marked
but otherwise identical stones, called the Urim and Thummim, were
kept in the pouch and were used as means of drawing lots in a
‘yes or no' manner. For later use see 1 Sam 23:6, 9-11, 30:6-8]
the robe of the ephod entirely of blue cloth,
an opening for the head in its center. There shall be a woven
edge like a collar around this opening, so that it will not tear.
pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn around the hem of
the robe, with gold bells between them.
gold bells and the pomegranates are to alternate around the hem
of the robe.
must wear it when he ministers. The sound of the bells will be
heard when he enters the Holy Place before the Lord
when he comes out, so that he will not die.
The ephod apparently fits over an all-encompassing robe
that Aaron wore. The fascinating thing about it was the bells
fitted all round the bottom of it that would ring when he moved
as they bumped between the alternating pomegranates. Thus when
he was in the Tabernacle people could be reassured that he was
still alive as they continued to hear the bells.]
a plate of pure gold and engrave on it as on a seal: holy
to the Lord .
a blue cord to it to attach it to the turban;
it is to be on the front of the turban.
will be on Aaron's forehead, and he will bear the guilt involved
in the sacred gifts the Israelites consecrate, whatever their
gifts may be. It will be on Aaron's forehead continually so that
they will be acceptable to the Lord
The important part of the turban he wore on his head
was a pure gold engraved plate tied to it declaring him holy to
the Lord, i.e. consecrated to be allowed into God's presence.
He thus becomes an intermediary for the people who bring sacrifices.]
Materials Used and clothes made
the tunic of fine linen and make the turban
of fine linen. The sash is to be the
work of an embroiderer.
tunics, sashes and caps for Aaron's sons to give them dignity
you put these clothes on your brother Aaron and his sons, anoint
and ordain them. Consecrate them so they may serve me as priests.
linen undergarments as a covering for the body, reaching from
the waist to the thigh.
and his sons must wear them whenever they enter the tent of meeting
or approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place, so that they
will not incur guilt and die.
is to be a lasting ordinance for Aaron and his descendants.
The garments already mentioned are added to by an embroidered
sash, otherwise undescribed presumably worn around one shoulder
and perhaps hanging down to the waist as isf often seen with kings
or dignitaries. The prescribed clothing is essential whenever
Aaron served at the Tabernacle.]
Continue to Chapter 29