Front Page

Series Theme: FRAMEWORKS: 1 Samuel

(Return to Old Testament Contents)


FRAMEWORKS: 1 Samuel 13: Saul provoked to disobedience


v.1,2 Saul gathered an army to himself

v.3-7 Jonathan provokes a Philistine attack

v.8-10 Saul offers Burnt Offerings

v.11-15 Samuel rebukes Saul for crossing spiritual boundaries

v.16-23 Philistine Raiding Parties Continue but Israel are without Weapons



v.1,2 Saul gathered an army to himself


v.1 Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty- two years.

v.2 Saul chose three thousand men from Israel; two thousand were with him at Mikmash and in the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan at Gibeah in Benjamin. The rest of the men he sent back to their homes.


[Notes: The events that roll out in the remainder of 1 Samuel, can thus be seen to be spread over a twelve year period (although there are some manuscript doubts over these periods so it may be longer). Saul, establishing his rule no doubt, forms two small armies, one under his control and the other under that of his son, Jonathan, in two towns a few miles apart. Thus Jonathan has freedom to act as he will.]



v.3-7 Jonathan provokes a Philistine attack


v.3 Jonathan attacked the Philistine outpost at Geba, and the Philistines heard about it. Then Saul had the trumpet blown throughout the land and said, “Let the Hebrews hear!”

v.4 So all Israel heard the news: “Saul has attacked the Philistine outpost, and now Israel has become obnoxious to the Philistines.” And the people were summoned to join Saul at Gilgal.

v.5 The Philistines assembled to fight Israel, with three thousand chariots, six thousand charioteers, and soldiers as numerous as the sand on the seashore. They went up and camped at Mikmash, east of Beth Aven.

v.6 When the Israelites saw that their situation was critical and that their army was hard pressed, they hid in caves and thickets, among the rocks, and in pits and cisterns.

v.7 Some Hebrews even crossed the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead.

Saul remained at Gilgal, and all the troops with him were quaking with fear.


[Notes: Jonathan's base is nearer the still-enemy Philistines and so he attacks them with the result that Saul has to call out Israel to oppose the upset Philistines. However the Philistines are able to muster a much bigger and better equipped army which creates fear in Israel.]



v.8-10 Saul offers Burnt Offerings


v.8 He waited seven days, the time set by Samuel; but Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and Saul's men began to scatter.

v.9 So he said, “Bring me the burnt offering and the fellowship offerings.” And Saul offered up the burnt offering.

v.10 Just as he finished making the offering, Samuel arrived, and Saul went out to greet him.


[Notes: Saul, meantime, has been waiting for Samuel to arrive and encourage the troops and, when he doesn't appear, Saul feels he has to provide the spiritual input and so starts making offerings – but he's not a priest from the tribe of Levi – and then Samuel arrives.]



v.11-15 Samuel rebukes Saul for crossing spiritual boundaries

v.11 “What have you done?” asked Samuel.

Saul replied, “When I saw that the men were scattering, and that you did not come at the set time, and that the Philistines were assembling at Mikmash,

v.12 I thought, ‘Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal, and I have not sought the Lord 's favor.' So I felt compelled to offer the burnt offering.”

v.13 “You have done a foolish thing,” Samuel said. “You have not kept the command the Lord your God gave you; if you had, he would have established your kingdom over Israel for all time.

v.14 But now your kingdom will not endure; the Lord has sought out a man after his own heart and appointed him ruler of his people, because you have not kept the Lord 's command.”

v.15 Then Samuel left Gilgal and went up to Gibeah in Benjamin, and Saul counted the men who were with him. They numbered about six hundred.


[ Notes: Samuel rebukes Saul who makes excuses, the main one being that Samuel had not turned up when he said he would, thus he had to act. Samuel refuses to accept this and prophesies that the kingdom will be taken from him and given to another. Verse 13 is taken up by the apostle Paul to identify David – see Acts 13:22]



v.16-23 Philistine Raiding Parties Continue but Israel are without Weapons


v.16 Saul and his son Jonathan and the men with them were staying in Gibeah in Benjamin, while the Philistines camped at Mikmash.

v.17 Raiding parties went out from the Philistine camp in three detachments. One turned toward Ophrah in the vicinity of Shual,

v.18 another toward Beth Horon, and the third toward the borderland overlooking the Valley of Zeboyim facing the wilderness.

v.19 Not a blacksmith could be found in the whole land of Israel, because the Philistines had said, “Otherwise the Hebrews will make swords or spears!”

v.20 So all Israel went down to the Philistines to have their plow points, mattocks, axes and sickles sharpened.

v.21 The price was two-thirds of a shekel for sharpening plow points and mattocks, and a third of a shekel for sharpening forks and axes and for repointing goads.

v.22 So on the day of the battle not a soldier with Saul and Jonathan had a sword or spear in his hand; only Saul and his son Jonathan had them.

v.23 Now a detachment of Philistines had gone out to the pass at Mikmash.


[Notes: The Israelites are hopelessly ‘outgunned' having no weapons like the Philistines, only Saul and Jonathan having swords or spears. They are not yet a nation equipped for fighting wars.]