Front Page
Series Contents
Series Theme: Bible Study Approaches








1. Introduction

2. From Genesis

3. From Exodus

4. Wilderness Wanderings

5. Taking the Land



































1. Introduction

2. From Genesis

3. From Exodus

4. Wilderness Wanderings

5. Taking the Land








































1. Introduction

2. From Genesis

3. From Exodus

4. Wilderness Wanderings

5. Taking the Land














1. Introduction

2. From Genesis

3. From Exodus

4. Wilderness Wanderings

5. Taking the Land

Title:   18. The Study of "Types"


A resource to help you understand the people in the Gospels





1. Introduction


The notes on this page are for those who wish to go in-depth in their understanding of the prophetic destiny of the church as it was revealed through the historical events of the Old Testament.

To get the most out of this page, it is essential that the students works slowly through the notes comparing Scripture with Scripture.

Types in the Old Testament mean "pictures from the Old Testament history that reveal something of the truths and reality of New Testament experience."

We will start our considerations of this subject by looking at some of the Types in the book of Genesis, then move on to consider Exodus and Joshua.


Rom 15:4 tells us that the Old Testament writing were written for our instruction,and encouragement.

In the New Testament, we find it constantly refers to the Old Testament and often indicates that the Old Testament showed pictures that speak of things to come in the New.

Wherever possible we should look for Types where the Bible expressly indicates one, but sometimes we may assume a Type where it is so clear that one can be considered.



2. Illustrations from the book of GENESIS

2.1 Genesis as a Whole - The purpose of God bringing salvation

•   Genesis starts with God's provision which is rejected by man. The spiritual principle is that God's provision is there for every man but they prefer their own endeavours.
•   As Genesis develops, we see Mankind without God merely causes chaos and destruction and warrants the judgment of God.  The same is still the case for every individual today .
•   God chooses His man, Abram, to be a man of faith, who will leave all and follow Him. So today, God calls each person to leave all and follow Him.
•   Through that man God brings forth the impossible, new life that is Isaac. So today in us he brings new life where only death prevails.
•   The new son, Isaac, merely has to receive his inheritance; he does not have to work for it. So with us, as Christians, it is all a free gift that has to be simply received.
•   The next son, Esau, gives away his inheritance to satisfy his carnal desires. So too we can miss out on God's inheritance for us if we allow carnal desires to prevail.
•   The next son, Jacob, had to realise that his scheming nature got him nowhere and his self-endeavours were broken in wrestling with God.  So with us we have to learn, as Christians, that our self- endeavours have to give way to the will of God for our lives.
•   When that self endeavour was broken, God renamed him Israel , which can be interpreted “God strives” as a reminder that he was what he was now because he had had dealings with God.  We too, now called Christians, are reminded by our name that we are what we are only because of Christ, because we ha e had dealings with God.
•   The next son, Joseph, was called by God with a purpose, was cast out from his family but was raised up by God as a saviour.  So it is with Jesus.
•   Some of the specific types in Genesis are as follows:

2.2 Noah's Ark

•   Gen 6-8 / I Pet 3
•   The old had to be destroyed before the new world could come forth
•   The ark (Christ) brings the chosen of God from the old to the new
•   The rest receive God's judgment

2.3 Melchizedek

•   Gen 14/ Heb 7
•   Picture of Jesus, the Priest/King
•   A king & a priest receives gifts from the man of faith
•   He appears without beginning or end
•   Greater than the Levites (existing priests of the Law)
•   A greater priest was needed where the old was insufficient
•   Jesus is OUR priest, who intercedes for us with God
•   He is blameless, pure and set apart
•   He offers a perfect sacrifice - himself

2.4 Abraham

•   Gen 21 / Gal 4:21-31
•   2 sons = 2 covenants
•   i) Ishmael

•   started by human unbelief, wilfulness & impatience

•   born by human endeavour, a natural birth

•   born of a slave woman, born to be a wanderer

•   represents Mt.Sinai (the Law) & old Jerusalem

•  ii) Isaac

•   given by God's promise

•   received by faith, a supernatural birth

•   born of a chosen woman, born to inherit

•   represents the new Jerusalem (resurrection)

2.5 Joseph

•   Gen 37-46 / Rom 11
•   Leah, the elder has her children before Rachel has any
•   she then has Joseph (Jewish nation had its children before Christian era had any. Christ, the first born from the dead was born of the new Israel )
•   this son is rejected by the children of the elder wife (Christ was rejected by the Jews) and is cast into Egypt (picture of the world)
•   there after a time of suffering and shame he is exalted to head of the kingdom (Christ is now reigning on high)
•  his wife is given him from the Gentiles (the church is the bride of Christ) and his brothers eventually come and bow before him ( Israel will eventually acknowledge him)



3. Illustrations from the Book of EXODUS

3.1 Egypt :

•   a picture of the world
•   NB. "world" in Scripture has three different meanings:
  i) the earth on which we live
 ii) the people on the earth
iii) the system of godless attitudes held by the majority of people. It is this last meaning that we consider here.
•   it is where the people are in slavery, ruled by a tyrant (1:8,9 / 1 Jn 5:19 )
•   where the people want to be free but are unable to deliver themselves -


3.2 Passover:

•   a picture of "Redemption", of being purchased from death - initiated by God
•   an act of judgment
•   a perfect lamb is slain on God's instructions
•   death comes - either to the people or the lamb
•   see Heb 9:22 / 1 Cor 5:7 / 1 Pet 2:22 / 2 Cor 5:21
•   every person had a hand in its death Ex 12:6 / Acts 4:27
•   each one had to eat the lamb Ex 12:8 / Jn 6:53
•   they were to eat unleavened bread Ex 12: 15 / 1Cor 5:8
•   it was to be as a memorial feast Ex 12:24 -26 / 1 Cor 11 :24
•   it Is the clear picture of Jesus dying in our place

3.3 Departure :

•   a picture of leaving the world and being separated to God
•   see also Gal 1:3
•   it is leaving that old life completely behind: 1 Cor 6:17

3.4 Chased :

•   pursued by the enemy Ex 14:5 (we often find there is a counter-attack by the enemy: I Pet 5:8) ,
•   it is within God's plan (Ex 14:1,2) and used by God for His glory
•   the enemy's end is decreed ( Rev 20:10 )

3.5 Pillar of Cloud and Fire:

•   guided them day & night Ex 13:21 (so we have God's word - Psa 119:105, and God's Holy Spirit -Jn 16:3 to guide US)
•   it stood between them and their enemy Exo 14:19, it went before them Num 9:17 , and rested in their midst 40:34 (so Jesus is for us Rom 8:31-34, with us Mt 28:20, and in us 1 Cor 6:19)

3.6 Red Sea Escape:

•   is a picture of deliverance through death
•   planned by God Ex 14:2 / Lk 9:24
•   pressed by the enemy Ex 14:9 / Mt 16:24 / Rom 6:11
•   the enemy was destroyed Ex 14:28 / Heb 2:14
•   so we are freed from sin and Satan eg. Rom 6:6,7

3.7 The Manna:

•    for while they were in the wilderness (testing) time, but it ceased when they arrived in the place of God's choosing (so God promises to provide for us in the places of testing 1 Cor 10: 13 / 2 Cor 12:9)
•   it was supernatural provision which had to be eaten that day and did not keep (so God provides for us on a daily basis Mt 6:11 )
•   they were to eat of it and be nourished by it. (so we are to feed on Jesus Jn 6:57. and on his word Heb 5:12 -14)

3.8 The Tabernacle:

•   this tent was the dwelling place for God in the midst of His people
 is a picture of Jesus. God dwelling on earth
  the church, his body on earth today 1 Cor 12:27
•  its sacrifices foreshadowed the one perfect sacrifice by Jesus
•   its priesthood foreshadowed the priesthood of Christ within the veil. See Heb 9
•   the details of the tabernacle manufacture, its uses and its furniture are so numerous that a separate study would be necessary.


NB. The Purpose of these Pages about Types

So far we have considered some of the pictures in Genesis and Exodus and have done so purely to give illustrations to whet the appetite for further study on this subject. Within these pages we have not provided verses to verify every Type but leave that to you for further study yourself.

To complete this part on "Types" we now look at two particular episodes in Israel 's history which can sharply bring into focus understanding of Christian experience.

They are:

1. Israel 's time in the Wilderness after having left Egypt on their way to the Promised land, Canaan

2. Israel 's entry into the promised Land under Joshua




4. Illustrations from the WILDERNESS WANDERINGS

      See especially Exodus & Numbers

      We will note just three things from this episode:

4.1 It was entered

•   by the direction of God
•   after the Passover
•   with the enemy of the world left behind
•   after the crossing of the Red Sea

This indicates as a "Type":

•   It is illustrative of the life of the called-out child of God.
•   It means a separation from the world and Satan (see 2 Cor 6:16 -18)
•   It is entered only through death to self (see Rom 6:2,11 / Col 2:20 Note, an act of salvation)

4.2 It was supposed to be a limited experience

•   They were supposed to pass through it and enter the land
•   We too are called to go on to maturity (see Heb 6:11-14/ Eph 4:13-15)

4.3 It was a place of knowing God's daily provision

•   For basic needs e.g. food, water,general guidance

•   We need to learn to:

i) feed on him to be strong (see Jn 6:57 / Heb 5:14 )
ii) drink of the Spirit (see Jn 7:37 -39)
iii) receive his guidance (see Gal 5:25 )




     See especially Joshua

We may note the following things about this picture:

1. It was entered through death to self (see Mt 16:24    Note: this is a conscious act of will)

2. It was God's promised inheritance for Israel (see Gal 4:7 / 2 Pet I :4 / Mt 25:34)

3. It was to be a place of natural abundant provision (see Eph 1:7,18)

4. It was also a place of battles to take the inheritance from the unbelieving, godless, occupiers of the land (see Eph 6:12 )

5. The victory was assured for them in accordance with God's promise Josh 1:3-5 (see 1 Cor 15:57 / Rom 8:37 / Rom 16:20 / 1 Cor 15:25 )

6. That was obtained as they obeyed his instructions (see Jn 15:5/ Jn 14:12.15)


NB. References in the Old Testament

a) Wilderness

•   Led by God - Ex 13:18
•   Enemy defeated behind - Ex 14:26-28
•   Red Sea Crossing - Ex 14:21,22
•   Limited duration - Ex: 33:1
•   Provision of bread - Ex 16 / Water - Ex 15:27, 17:1-7 / Guidance - Num 9:15-23

b) Taking the Land:  

•   Entered by death - Josh 4
•   Promised inheritance - Gen 12:7 & Ex 6:8
•   Place of abundant provision - Num 13:27, 14:7,8
•   Victory promised - Josh 1:3-5
•   Direction given - Josh 6:2 & 8:1 etc.



We hope that having considered some of these pictures from the OT in the light of NT experience, we should be able to see more clearly some of the wonder of that which God ordained from before the foundation of the world (Eph 1:4)

Return to Top